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Prostate Cancer by Ejona Cekrezi

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Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer in men in the United States of America. (According to the National Cancer Institute).Every man is at risk to prostate cancer. As the prostate gland is exclusive to the male reproductive system, this cancer affects only men. For us to better understand this disease, first of all we must know that the prostate is a male sex glad which produces a thick fluid that forms part of semen, and it is the size of a walnut .

Prostate is located in front of the rectum and below the bladder. Urethra that is the tube that empties urine from the bladder is surrounded by the prostate. Our bodies are made up of different types of cells, these cells grow and divide to produce more cells when our bodies need them, but sometimes our organ systems do not work properly and cells keep dividing and new cells are produced even if not necessary, when this process happen too much tissue is form in our bodies. Excess tissue can lead to benign or malignant. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is the abnormal growth of prostate cells that leads to prostate growing larger in size and will cause to push against the bladder and the urethra by blocking the normal flow of urine.

Prostate cancer may remain in the prostate or it may spread to lymph nodes, bones, bladder, rectum or other organs. Advanced prostate cancer is the stage where it spreads to other body parts. Prostate cancer in the spinal cord could compress the spinal cord, which can cause additional symptoms like vertebral pain and pain in the bones of the pelvis and ribs.

Some of the symptoms that indicate that prostate cancer is present on the patient are:
• Painful or burning urination
• Blood in urine or semen
• Not being able to urinate normally
• Frequent urinate ,especially at night
• Pain in the lower back, hips etc.

It is very important that if the symptoms occur to get it checked with the doctor. Nowadays a lot of exams and tests are available such as: Urine test, digital rectal exam, blood test, cystoscopy ,or intravenous pyelogram .If the patient is diagnosed with the prostate cancer , depending from stage of the disease , the doctor develops a treatment plan to fit the patient’s need. There are several methods of treatment such as surgery to remove the entire prostate, radiation therapy where high-energy rays are used to damage the cancer cells and stop them from growing and dividing, or hormone therapy that prevents the prostate cancer cells getting the male hormones they need to grow and spread. When the patient goes under hormone therapy, the level of hormones decrease and this affects the prostate cancer cells. It is very vital for prostate cancer to get detected early because it has a 5-year survival rate of nearly 99%. (MD Anderson) Most kinds of cancers are curable nowadays, but for that to happen we have to be aware and alert and always diagnose our bodies.

• Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, Martini/Nath;Chapter 28 ,The Reproductive System p.1059
• American Cancer Society (ACS)


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