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Endocrine Disorders – outline notes

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Hormones are chemical messengers. They are a major way in which our body communicates with itself. If our messages are unable to do their job, i.e. too much *hypersecretion or too little *hyposecretion, serious problems can result. The following are common endocrine disorders.

Diabetes Mellitus (DM)
-hyposecretion / hypoactivity of insulin
-without insulin, glucose cannot enter most cells
-without glucose in cells, the cells will turn to lipids for fuel
-lipidemia – high lipid in blood
-cells use lipids for fuel — byproduct is ketones (organic acids)
-Ketoacidosis – high ketones will decrease pH – also see ketones in
urine (ketonuria)

3 signs of Diabetes Mellitus
1. Polyuria – increased urine output
-loss of electrolytes can lead to abdominal cramping
2. Polydipsia – increased thirst
3. polyphagia – increased hunger

2 types of DM
1. Type I diabetes mellitus / insulin-dependent DM / juvenile onset
-symptoms appear suddenly before age 15
-autoimmune response destroying B-cells of pancreas for long period
-no insulin produced
-because of high lipidemia and cholesterol
vascular problems —atherosclerosis, strokes, MI, gangrene,
-neuropathies – loss of sensation, bladder functions, impotence
2. Type II diabetes mellitus / non-insulin DM / mature onset
-after age of 40 usually
-familial predisposition – hereditary
-usually insulin receptors are not responding
-obesity can also bring this on



Growth Hormone       

HYPOSECRETION (not enough); Dwarfism – children,

HYPERSECRETION (too much);  Gigantism – children; Acromegaly – adults; thickening of bony areas still sensitive to GH (hands, feet, face)
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Thyroid Hormones    

HYPOSECRETION;  Myxedema – aldults; decreased metabolism, lethargy; goiter – if from lack of iodine (enlarged thyroid); Cretinism – children; thick tongue and neck, mentally retarded

HYPERSECRETION; Grave’s disease – increase metabolic rate, weight loss; exophthalmos ( protrusion of eyeballs)

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Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

HYPOSECRETION;  Diabetes insipidus – polyuria/thirst, hypoosmotic urine

HYPERSECRETION; SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate ADH) – water retention, hypoosmolarity of blood


HYPOSECRETION; Addison’s disease – loss of sodium, dehydration

HYPERSECRETION; Aldosteronism – retention of sodium, edema

HYPOSECRETION; Addison’s disease – decrease glucose and sodium

HYPERSECRETION; Cushing’s disease – hyperglycemia, loss of muscle and bone protein.
Sign’s —“moon” face and fat in posterior neck (buffalo hump)
Catecholamines (Epi and NE) 

HYPOSECRETION; Decreased fight/flight

HYPERSECRETION; Hyperglycemia, increase metabolic rate, hypertension; caused by a tumor of adrenal medulla (pheochromocytoma)




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