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Benefits of Fitness – outline notes

By at September 28, 2011 | 6:01 am | Print

Fitness – Enables body to perform physical activity
Sedentary – opposite of physical activity

Benefits of Fitness
-promotes health and prevents disease
-inactivity contributes to heart disease, cancer, stroke, diabetes, hypertension

Fitness leads to
-restful sleep
-body repairs injuries, builds muscle, strengthen immunity
-limits body fat and adds lean muscle
bone density – weight bearing exercise protects against osteoporosis
-enhances immunity
-decreases cancer risks (breast and colon, others)
-enhances CV and respiratory functions
-decrease risk of heart attacks and strokes
-decreases BP and HR, improves blood cholesterol
-decrease risk of diabetes
-decreases anxiety and depression
-psychological stress leads to physical stress
-improves self-image
-increases quality of life

Physical Fitness
-improves heart, circulation, and lungs
-3-5 days/week for 20-60 minutes
-resistance activity
-improves muscle tone and bone density
-weight training
-2-3 days/week, 8-12 repetitions of 8-10 different exercises
-stretching activity
-allows joints to move with less chance of injury
-2-3 days/week, 4 repetitions of 10-30 seconds/group
even moderate activity prevents disease
-type of moderate activity??
-take stairs, park car further away, walk around mall, walk dog…

Conditioning – applies components of flexibility, strength, endurance
Progressive overload principle
-increase frequency, intensity and/or duration each training session
-Difference between muscle soreness and injury
-pay attention to your body signals
-the more you train your body, the better you will understand it
-be active all week
-exercise correctly – proper form and approved exercises
-always warm up – stretching gets blood to muscles and prevents injury
-cool down – stretch
-beginners start easy
Proper rest of major muscle groups
-pectoralis major – chest
-biceps, triceps – arms
-latissimus dorsi – back
-deltoids, trapezius – shoulders
-quadriceps, hamstrings, gluteal group, gastrocnemius – legs
**Examples of exercises for each major muscle group

-body converts energy from food to energy in ATP
-50% of energy is captured in ATP, 50% is radiated as heat
-50% efficiency
energy in ATP is used to do work
-50% of energy in ATP is used to do work, 50% lost as heat
-50% efficiency
**Overall, the body converts 25% of food energy to useful work
-75% of energy is released as heat
-heat is necessary to keep us at optimal body temperature

Components of Energy Expenditure
1. Basal Metabolism
2. Physical Activity
3. Thermic effect of food

1. Basal Metabolism
-2/3 of energy expenditure
-energy used to support basic processes of life
-breathing, heart pumping, brain functions, kidneys, etc.
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) – rate at which person spends energy at rest
-Factors affecting BMR
-lowest during sleep
-lean muscle mass – weight of body minus fat
– lean muscle,  BMR
-males have higher BMR than females
– w/ age, because of  lean muscle mass
– w/ height, because of  surface area to radiate off heat (energy)
-Growth —  growing child,  pregnancy
– fever – production of heat (energy)
-speeds metabolism of immune system, fight infections
–  caffeine and nicotine
–  stress and disease
–  fasting and starvation

2. Physical Activity
Voluntary movement – skeletal muscle
-most variable component of energy expenditure
– influence on weight loss/gain
-Amount of energy needed for activity depends on:
-muscle mass –  muscle used,  energy used
-body weight –  body weight,  energy used
-need more energy to move larger body
–  (duration, frequency, and intensity),  energy used
-an obese person may spend more overall energy doing a task, but
generally will have a lower BMR than a person who weighs less and has a greater lean body mass

3. Thermic effect of food
-energy required to process food – digestion, absorption, movement, etc.
-10% of energy intake

 Estimating Energy Requirements

Basal metabolic rate – estimating with age, gender, weight, and height
What this does not take into account is body composition.

1. Convert weight from pounds to kilograms
* 2.2 lbs = 1 kg
* weight in lbs / 2.2 lbs/kg = ______kg

2. Convert height in inches to cm
* 1 inch = 2.54cm
* height in inches x 2.54 cm = _________ cm

3. Plug into Harris-Benedict equation

BMR = 66 + (13.7 x wt. in kg) + (5 x ht in cm) – (6.8 x age in yrs)

BMR = 655 + (9.6 x wt. in kg) + (1.8 x ht in cm) – (4.7 x age in yrs)

To estimate energy values for physical activity.
*Multiply activity factor by BMR
-Very light – multiply by 1.3.
-driving, typing, sewing, cooking
-Light – multiply by men (1.6) and females(1.5)
-housecleaning, golf, carpentry
-Heavy – multiply by men (2.1) and females (1.9)
-heavy exercise, running, weightlifting

Body Mass Index (BMI) – weight to height relationship
-BMI = weight (lb) / height (inches)2 x 705

BMI < 18.5 = underweight
BMI 18.5 to 24.9 = normal
BMI 25 to 29.9 = overweight
BMI > 30 = obese

Misc Articles Physiology outline notes

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