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Clinical Terminology | Blood Pathologies

By at October 5, 2011 | 5:38 am | Print

Red Blood Cells
Anemiablood has abnormally low oxygen carrying capacity
Causes:
insufficient # of RBC’s
hemorrhagic anemias – blood loss
hemolytic anemias – RBC’s ruptured
aplastic anemias – destruction of red bone marrow
decreased hemoglobin content
iron deficiency anemia
-microcytes – small pale RBC’s
pernicious anemia – B12 deficiency usually due to lack of intrinsic factor
-macrocytes – large pale RBC’s
abnormal hemoglobin – genetic
sickle cell anemia
thalassemias  


*Polycythemia – increased # of RBC’s

White Blood Cells
leukocytosis – WBC count over 11,000/mm3
-normal homeostatic response to bacterial / viral invasion
leukopenia – abnormally low WBC count
leukemias – cancerous condition of WBC’s
–infectious mononucleosis – “kissing disease”
-caused by Epstein-Barr virus

Hemostasis disorders
Thromboembolytic disorders – “hemostasis in the wrong places”
-thrombus – blood clot in unbroken blood vessel
-coronary thrombosis – thrombus blocking coronary circulation
-embolus – thrombus that breaks free into circulation
-pulmonary embolus or cerebral embolus
**Aspirin, heparin, and Coumadin = anticoagulants
Bleeding disorders – anything that interferes with clotting mechanism
thrombocytopenia – decreased number of platelets (< 50,000 / mm3)
hemophilias – group of hereditary bleeding disorders
-deficiency of a clotting factor

Clinical Terms
Hematology – study of blood
Hematoma – “black and blue mark” — accumulated clotted blood in the tissue
Septicemia – “blood poisoning” – harmful levels of bacteria or their toxins in the
blood
emia – (suffix) condition of the blood
ex)lipidemia – high lipid content in blood
hema-, hemato-, hemo- – (prefix) blood
ex)hemolysis – splitting of blood cells
 

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